Towards future 4th and 5th generations of District Heating and Cooling (DHC)
The Hypergryd project includes concepts and terms related to thermal-electric grids and associated technologies.

A terms and definitions glossary has been created to facilitate partners and stakeholders to understand and have a consensus on the concepts used in the project.

It is a reference tool for anyone interested to know more about Hypergryd.

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Application programming interface (API)

Code that allows two software programs to communicate with each other.


Is a family of client software, server software, and online geographic information system (GIS) services.

Artificial Neural Network

Brain-inspired computing system able to detect patterns and relationships in data and to learn from it.

Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH (AIT)

Research institute.


BIM Execution Plan (BEP)

The intent of the BIM Execution Plan (BEP) is to define a foundational framework to ensure successful deployment of advanced design technologies on your BIM enabled project. The BEP is about optimizing work and model flow across the project, as contrasted with optimizing siloed interests.


Central computerised system for running the building services in the most efficient way,by,e.g.,adjusting the heating levels,turning lights on or off.

BootStrap technology

Is a free and open-source CSS framework directed at responsive, mobile-first front-end web development. It contains HTML, CSS and (optionally) JavaScript-based design templates for typography, forms, buttons, navigation, and other interface components.

Borehole thermal storages

Borehole thermal energy storage involves using the ground as the storage medium, allowing heat to be added to the ground during the summer months, and extracted to meet the heating demands in the winter heating season.

Building Automation System (BAS)

Is a network designed to connect and automate certain functions inside a building. All of the building control systems, from lighting and HVAC (Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning) to fire and security systems—all wired through one set of controls.

Building Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) loads

Hating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are the largest energy end use in the nondomestic sector, with energy consumption. Different HVAC systems have different energy requirements when responding to the same building heating and cooling demands. Building heating and cooling demands depend on various parameters such as building fabrics, glazing ratio, building form, occupancy pattern, and many others. HVAC system energy requirements and building energy demands can be determined by mathematical modelling.

Building Information Modeling (BIM)

Digital form of construction and asset operations that brings together technology, process improvements and digital information to radically improve client and project outcomes and asset operations.


Capital expenditures (CAPEX)

The purchase of fixed assets, e.g. plant and machinery, for the purpose of increasing future production; the sum of money spent on fixed assets.

Citizen Energy Community (CEC)

The Clean Energy Package (CEP) defines a CEC as a legal entity that: (a) is based on voluntary and open participation and is effectively controlled by members or shareholders that are natural persons, local authorities, including municipalities, or small enterprises; (b) has for its primary purpose to provide environmental, economic or social community benefits to its members or shareholders or to the local areas where it operates rather than to generate financial profits; and (c) may engage in generation, including from renewable sources, distribution, supply, consumption, aggregation, energy storage, energy efficiency services or charging services for electric vehicles or provide other energy services to its members or shareholders.


City Geography Mark‐up Language. A common information model for the representation of 3D urban objects. The format defines classes and relations for the most relevant topographic objects in cities and regional models with respect to their geometrical, topological, semantic and appearance properties.

Clean Energy Package (CEP)

The Clean Energy Package or Clean energy for all Europeans package (CEP) is an EU rulebook adopted in 2019. It expects to bring considerable benefits for consumers, the environment, and for the economy through new directives which must be converted into EU countries’ national law within 1-2 years.

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR)

Research institute.

Coefficient of Performance (COP)

Ratio of the available useful heat produced by a system compared to the energy that must be fed into the system.

Combined Heat and Power (CHP)

The consecutive generation of useful thermal and electric energy from the same fuel source.

Community Trading

Community Trading refers to energy exchanges that take place between multiple members of a community.


As a security engineering concept, means that the person or application requesting data will only be able to access the one needed to complete their task. As a result, exposure potential will be limited, or even in the case of a data breach, the damage could be minimized.

Contingency plan

Actions designed for use only if certain events occur.

CSS3 styling

Is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language such as HTML or XML (including XML dialects such as SVG, MathML or XHTML).


Data controller

The natural or legal person, public authority, agency or other body which, alone, or jointly with others, determines the purposes and means of processing personal data.

Data distortion

Will ensure that an untrusted party releases company data (or pattern
extracted from data); this party won’t learn any of the company’s sensitive information or reidentify company users. It is achieved through controlled data distortion/modification
preserving specific characteristics (defined as utilities) of the data, e.g., statical properties.

Data processor

The natural or legal person, public authority, agency, or other body which processes personal data on behalf of the controller. Technology that stocks thermal energy by heating or cooling a storage medium so that the stored energy can be used at a later time for heating and cooling applications and power generation.

Data terminal equipment (DTE)

Part of a data station that serves as a data source, a data sink, or both.

Decentralized Generations (DG)

System involving small amounts of generation located on a utility’s distribution system for the purpose of meeting local (substation level) peak loads and/or displacing the need to build additional (or upgrade) local distribution lines.

Demand Response Management (DRM)

Schemes to manage energy for residential buildings in a smart grid.

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

Technique that records the difference in energy inputs into a substance and a reference material, as a function of temperature, while the substance and reference material are subjected to the same controlled temperature programme.

Digital Twins

Virtual representation using data, data analytics and machine learning to help stimulation models that can be updated and changed (real-time) as their physical equivalents change.

Disaster recovery (DR)

Activities (planning, testing etc.) to protect an organization from the effects of significant negative events (e.g. cyberattack, natural disaster), which helps restoring operations and accesses, and getting back data quickly.

Distributed Energy Resources (DERs)

Variety of small, modular power-generating technologies that can be combined with energy management and storage systems and used to improve the operation of the electricity delivery system, whether or not those technologies are connected to an electricity grid.

Distributed Energy Syte (DES)

Is a term which encompasses a diverse array of generation, storage and energy monitoring and control solutions. DES can be tailored to very specific requirements and users’ applications including cost reductions, energy efficiency, security of supply and carbon reduction.

Distributed Multi-Generation (DMG)

Is electrical generation and storage performed by a variety of small, grid-connected or distribution system-connected devices referred to as distributed energy resources (DER).

Distribution system operators (DSOs)

Natural or legal person who is responsible for operating, ensuring the maintenance of and, if necessary, developing the distribution system in a given area and, where applicable, its interconnections with other systems, and for ensuring the long-term ability of the system to meet reasonable demands for the distribution of electricity.

District Heating and Cooling (DHC)

Thermal energy delivered to a building from an outside source is known as district heating and cooling, which can range in size from small systems serving two or three buildings to networks serving entire cities. District heating and cooling is widely used in developed countries throughout the world and offers numerous advantages over individual building apparatus, including greater safety and reliability, reduced emissions, and greater fuel flexibility, particularly in using alternative fuels such as biomass or waste.

Distric Heating Network DHN (2nd generation)

The second generation of district appeared in the 1930s, the main characteristics of this generation are the following: Were coal, waste and oil fueled; Used pressurized hot water as heat carrier with temperatures above 100°C; Were built around a centralized production unit; Introduced Combined Heat and Power (CHP) to save primary energy use.

Distric Heating Network DHN (3rd generation)

The third generation in district heating was developed in the 1970s after the two oil crisis the led to oil shortage. This generation rapidly spread all around the world, the main characteristics of this generation are: Prefabricated and pre-insulated pipes; Operation temperatures below 100°C; Used coal, biomass and waste as energy sources, and some systems used geothermal energy and solar energy.

Distric Heating Network DHN (4th generation)

The fourth generation in district heating is currently developed, they are a way to address climate change as: They integrate high shares of variable renewable energy; They supply low temperature district heating for space heating and domestic hot water (below 70°C); They distribute heat with low grid losses; They recycle heat from low temperature renewable energy sources.

Distric Heating Network DHN (5th generation)

The fifth generation of district heating distributes heat at near ambient ground temperatures, minimizing grid losses and thus, insulation needs. The main design characteristics are: Bi-directional exchange of thermal energy: supply of heat means receiving cold and vice versa; Thermal storage at large and small scale, appropriately places, are integrated with the thermal system to balance the demand for heat and cold; Demand driven algorithm-based control that optimizes the exergy flows using real-time data and monitoring.

District Heating and Cooling (DHC)

Thermal energy delivered to a building from an outside source is known as district heating and cooling, which can range in size from small systems serving two or three buildings to networks serving entire cities. District heating and cooling is widely used in developed countries throughout the world and offers numerous advantages over individual building apparatus, including greater safety and reliability, reduced emissions, and greater fuel flexibility, particularly in using alternative fuels such as biomass or waste.

District Heating and Cooling Network (DHCN)

Heating networks produce and transport heat in the form of hot water or steam for heating or domestic water use (hot water). Cooling networks produce and distribute cooling energy through a chilled water network to cool buildings.


Data Management Plan, describing the types of data that will be generated or gathered during the project.

Domestic hot water (DHW)

Hot water used in sinks, showers and baths for domestic purposes including drinking, cooking, sanitation and personal hygiene, but not including the hot water in heating systems.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

Is a network management protocol used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks for automatically assigning IP addresses and other communication parameters to devices connected to the network using a client–server architecture. The technology eliminates the need for individually configuring network devices manually, and consists of two network components, a centrally installed network DHCP server and client instances of the protocol stack on each computer or device. When connected to the network, and periodically thereafter, a client requests a set of parameters from the server using DHCP.


Electric vehicles (EV)

Vehicle with a powertrain containing at least one electric motor or electric motor-generator.

Electrical Grid

Integrated system of electricity distribution, usually covering a large area.

Energy efficiency (EE)

The ratio of output of performance, service, goods or energy, to input of energy.

Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER)

Declared capacity for cooling or rated cooling or refrigeration capacity, expressed in kW, divided by the rated power input, expressed in kW.

Energy Storage Capacity (ESC)

Energy capacity is the total amount of energy the battery system can store.

Energy Storage Density (ESD)

Is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.

Exergoeconomic optimization tool

The exergoeconomic optimization tool will be developed within the HYPERGRYD project. The tool will be based on QGIS and Python to optimize operation, components and design to reach a cost effective use and to increase the decenralized share of RES and P2H. The tool will cover economic and thermal modelling of the DH grids and consider variable tariffs for consumers and producers.

Exploitable Results (ER)

The manufacture of contract products or the application of the contract processes or the assignment or licensing of intellectual property rights or the communication of know-how required for such manufacture or application.


FAIR data

Set of guiding principles to make data Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable.


Genetic Algorithms

Search algorithm based on the mechanics of natural selection and natural genetics.

Geographic Information System (GIS)

Computer system that analyses and displays geographically referenced information.

Global warming potential (GWP)

Factor which describes the radiative forcing impact of one mass-based unit of a given greenhouse gas relative to an equivalent unit of carbon dioxide over a given period of time.

Graphical user Interface (GUI)

Form of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions

Is a network management protocol used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks for automatically assigning IP addresses and other communication parameters to devices connected to the network using a client–server architecture.


Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL)

Form of real-time simulation used in the development and testing of complex process systems which differs from real-time simulation by the addition of a real component, such as an electronic control unit, in the loop

Heat Pump (HP)

Machine, device or installation that transfers heat from natural surroundings such as air, water or ground to buildings or industrial applications by reversing the natural flow of heat such that it flows from a lower to a higher temperature.

Heat Roadmap Europe (HRE)

This has been the focus of the Heat Roadmap Europe (HRE) study series since 2012. In the latest edition, HRE4 built evidence supporting the decarbonization of the heating and cooling sector in Europe and developed roadmaps for redesigning this sector by combining the knowledge of local waste heat conditions and potential savings with an energy system analysis.

High power generation

The term ‘high power’ refers to electricity generation working at more than 50 kW. 


IFC Model Specification (Industry Foundation Classes data model standard)

Are an open international standard for Building Information Model (BIM) data that are exchanged and shared among software applications used by the various participants in the construction or facility management industry sector.

Information and communication technologies tools (ICT)

ICT includes a wide variety of technologies, including computers and software learning tools, networking systems and protocols, hand-held digital devices, digital cameras and camcorders, and other technologies, including those not yet developed, for accessing, managing, creating, and communicating information.

Information Delivery Manuals (IDM)

An be used to identify discrete processes that are undertaken during the lifecycle of a built asset, and to detail the information required to carry them out.

Integrated Design & Delivery Solutions (IDDS)

Use collaborative work processes and enhanced skills, with integrated data, information, and knowledge management to minimize structural and process in efficiencies and to enhance the value delivered during design, build, and operation, and across projects.

Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)

Engine in which the combustion of a fuel (normally a fossil fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber.

Internet of Things (IoT)

Products and services that are connected to a network and can be controlled at a distance, for example via a voice assistant or mobile device


Key Enabling Technology (KET)

Enabling technology [ IATE:1756394 ] which is expected to play a key role in the shift to a low-carbon, knowledge-based economy, deemed to be a precondition for ensuring welfare, prosperity and security.

Key Exploitable Results (KER)

A Key Exploitable Result (KER) is an identified main interesting result which has been selected and prioritised due to its high potential to be “exploited”.

Key Performance Indicator (KPI)

Quantifiable and pre-defined measure that is used to gauge or compare performance, with the aim of achieving strategic and operational goals.

Kinetic energy recovery system (KERS)

Is a type of regenerative braking system which has different approaches to store and reuse the lost energy.



A non‐proprietary XML‐based format containing civil engineering and survey measurement data commonly used in the land development and transportation industries. Since autumn 2012, the maintenance and development have been shared by OGC and building SMART.

Level of Detail (LoD)

Is the overall state of your information model at a particular point in its design process. This includes not only graphical objects, but also the data associated with the objects.

Level of Information (LoI)

The level of information need is defined to enable the right level of information to be provided to satisfy the information related purposes at each information exchange. It is important to avoid the delivery of too little information, which increases risk, and the delivery of too much information, which is wasteful. The level of information need is a broad concept which represents the framework for how the “richness” of each information deliverable is going to be defined. There are many different ways to express the level of information need, including the richness of geometrical details and the richness of datasets.

Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE)

A calculation of the cost of generating electricity at the point of connection to a load or electricity grid.

Life Cycle Cost analysis (LCC)

Method for assessing the total cost of facility ownership, which takes into account all costs of acquiring, owning, and disposing of a construction or construction system.

Life Cycle environmental Impact Assessment

E-LCA evaluates environmental performance throughout the life cycle of a product or from performing a service. The extraction and consumption of resources (including energy), as well as releases to air, water, and soil, are quantified throughout all stages.

Life Cycle Inventory (LCI)

Combined set of exchanges of elementary, waste and product flows in a LCI dataset.

Lithium Ferrophosphate (LFP)

Inorganic compound with the formula LiFePO. It is a gray, red-grey, brown or black solid that is insoluble in water. The material has attracted attention as a component of lithium iron phosphate batteries, a type of Li-ion battery. This battery chemistry is targeted for use in power tools, electric vehicles, solar energy installations and more recently large grid-scale energy storage.

Live-in Lab (LiL)

User-centred, open innovation ecosystem based on a systematic user co-creation approach integrating research and innovation processes in real life communities and settings.

Local Energy Community (LEC)

An association, a cooperative, a partnership, a non-profit organisation or other legal entity which is effectively controlled by local shareholders or members, generally value rather than profit-driven, involved in distributed generation and in performing activities of a distribution system operator, supplier or aggregator at local level, including across borders.

Local energy markets (LEMs)

Is a transparent market accessible for all appropriately metered assets – independent of size – within a Positive Energy Block (PEB) or District (PED), which could involve local production or local consumption. It is the basis for an Energy Community.

Loss of Load Expectation (LOLE)

Measure of how long, on average, the available generation capacity is likely to fall short of the load demand.

Loss of Load Probability (LOPL)

Expected annual fraction of a condition of insufficient generation available for the load.

Lower Heating Value (LHV)

Number of heat units measured as being liberated when a mass unit of fuel is burned in oxygen saturated with water vapour in a bomb under standardised conditions, the residual materials being taken as gaseous oxygen, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen, water as water vapour and ash.


Machine learning techniques (MLT)

Machine learning (ML) techniques enable systems to learn from experience. ML refers to a system’s ability to acquire and integrate knowledge through large-scale observations and to improve and extend itself by learning new knowledge rather than by being programmed with that knowledge.

Measurement & Verification (M&V) professionals

Is an accreditation from the Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO) and the Association of Energy Engineers (AEE) awarded to qualified professionals in the growing field of Measurement & Verification (M&V) within the energy industry. Its aim is to acknowledge good practice and raise overall professional standards within the M&V field worldwide.

Medium-High power generation

The term ‘medium-high power’ refers to electricity generation working between 10 and 50 kW.

Mitigation Measure

Measure that implies a reduction in the probability and/or impact of an adverse.

Model View Definition (MVD)

As IFC schema subsets to describe data exchange for a specific use or workflow.
These filtered IFC views basically allow you to simplify the data exchange process and to avoid sharing useless or redundant information while following standardized procedures.


Will allow individual actions to be traced with user IDs to sensitive changes.

Multi-Energy System (MES)

Whereby electricity, heat, cooling, fuels, transport, and so on optimally interact with each other at various levels (for instance, within a district, city or region) represent an important opportunity to increase technical, economic and environmental performance relative to “classical” energy systems whose sectors are treated “separately” or “independently”.


Ochsner Wärmepumen Gmb (OCHS)


Only Saving Necessary Data

Temporary information needed to execute requests that are not important for further use, shouldn’t be saved in the Cloud Storage.

Open Access (OA)

The act of making peer-reviewed scientific publications accessible to anyone free of charge.

Open Research Data Pilot (ORDP)

The ORD aims to improve and maximise access to, and re-use of research data generated by Horizon 2020 projects and takes into account the need to balance openness and protectionof scientific information, commercialisation and Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), privacy concerns, security as well as data management and preservation questions. The ORD pilot applies primarily to the data needed to validate the results presented in scientific publications. Other data can also be provided by the beneficiaries on a voluntary basis, as stated in their Data Management Plans. Costs associated with open access to research data, can be claimed as eligible costs of any Horizon 2020 grant.

Operational (O)


Operational expenditures (OPEX)

Expenses incurred during regular business, such as general and administrative expenses, research and development, and the cost of goods sold.

Operations & Maintenance (O&M) Phase

The period of time in the software life cycle during which a software product is employed in its operational environment,monitored for satisfactory performance,and modified as necessary to correct problems or to respond to changing requirements.

Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC)

Cycle containing condensable fluorinated greenhouse gas converting heat from a heat source into power for the generation of electric or mechanical energy.


Peer-to-Peer Trading (P2P)

Peer-to-Peer Trading (P2P) is defined by IRENA as a business model based on an interconnected platform, serving as an online marketplace where consumers and producers “meet” to trade electricity directly, without the need for an intermediary. It allows participants to exchange their surplus energy with other participants in the community. The model grants participants enhanced access to locally produced and cleaner energy, often at a favourable rate.

Phase Change Material (PCM) heat exchanger

Is a substance which releases/absorbs sufficient energy at phase transition to provide useful heat or cooling. Generally the transition will be from one of the first two fundamental states of matter – solid and liquid – to the other. The phase transition may also be between non-classical states of matter, such as the conformity of crystals, where the material goes from conforming to one crystalline structure to conforming to another, which may be a higher or lower energy state.

Phase-Change Material (PCM)

When heat is added to or removed from materials, phase change can occur in a variety of ways such as melting, evaporation, change of crystal-bound water content, etc., where total energy change is given by the change of enthalpy.

Photovoltaic (PV)

Capable of generating a voltage as a result of exposure to visible or other radiation.

Platform as a Service (PaaS)

Is a cloud computing model where a third-party provider delivers hardware and software tools to users over the internet. Usually, these tools are needed for application development. A PaaS provider hosts the hardware and software on its own infrastructure. As a result, PaaS frees developers from having to install in-house hardware and software to develop or run a new application.

Power to heat (P2H)

Defines the conversion of electrical energy into heat. The purpose of such systems is to utilize excess electricity generated by renewable energy sources which would otherwise curtailed. Power-to-Heat systems are hybrid systems and when there is an excess of energy the heat production can result from electric energy otherwise the traditional heating system will be used. In order to increase flexibility power-to-heat systems are often coupled with heat accumulators.

Primary Energy Consumption (PEC)

Direct use at the source, or supply to users without transformation, of crude energy, that is, energy that has not been subjected to any conversion or transformation process.

Primary Energy Factor (PEF)

Ratio between primary energy and the final energy consumed by the end user.

Probability and impact matrix

A common way to determine whether a risk is considered low, moderate or high by combining the two dimensions of a risk: its probability of occurrence and its impact on objectives if it occurs.

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

Digital computer or microcomputer used for automation of electromechanical processes (such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines or lighting fixtures).

Project Datasets

The sets of facts, information, and statistics in the technical work packages that lead to the information reported in project deliverables or scientific publications.

Project Information

Deliverables, dissemination materials, communication materials, stakeholder information or other content produced by the project for which the project’s consortium has decided to apply both data management principles (FAIR) and Open Access principles (free and available to anyone). This information is voluntarily included in the Data Management Plan.


Are generally defined as electricity consumers that produce part of their electricity needs from their own power plant and use the distribution network to inject excess production and to withdraw electricity when self-production is not sufficient to meet own needs.



QGIS is a free and open-source cross-platform desktop geographic information system (GIS) application that supports viewing, editing, printing, and analysis of geospatial data.


RANOTOR Utvecklings AB (RANO)


Regular Rotation of Security Keys and Certificates

As security keys are the root of the security infrastructure, a handling procedure should be in place to ensure that a single actor won’t compromise the system.

Renewable Energy Community (REC)

The Clean Energy Package (CEP) defines a REC as a legal entity: (a) which, in accordance with the applicable national law, is based on open and voluntary participation, is autonomous, and is effectively controlled by shareholders or members that are located in the proximity of the renewable energy projects that are owned and developed by that legal entity; (b) the shareholders or members of which are natural persons, SMEs or local authorities, including municipalities; (c) the primary purpose of which is to provide environmental, economic or social community benefits for its shareholders or members or for the local areas where it operates, rather than financial profits.

Renewable Energy Sources (RES)

Renewable sources of energy (wind power, solar power, hydroelectric power, ocean energy, geothermal energy, biomass and biofuels) are alternatives to fossil fuels that contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, diversifying energy supply and reducing dependence on unreliable and volatile fossil fuel markets, in particular oil and gas. 

Return on investment (ROI)

Financial metric used to evaluate the performance of an investment, where the gain of the investor is expressed as a percentage of the original investment.


An uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has an effect on at least one project objective.

Risk analisys

Process of prioritizing risks for further analysis or action by assessing and combining their probability of occurrence and impact.

Risk identification

The process of determining which risks may affect the project and documenting characteristics.


Scenario Analysis Interface for Energy Systems (SAInt)

The Scenario Analysis Interface for Energy Systems (SAInt) is a planning software to model coupled energy networks & markets, including electricity and gas.
SAInt advances energy planning by allowing users to model coupled energy networks to quantify their interdependencies and synergies and plan their integration and coordination. SAInt’s users can run physical simulations and optimization models to quantify the trade-offs between costs and reliability, and study the intersection of markets and physical systems.

Security measures

Security and cybersecurity measures must be adopted for the system, not only for data protection but also for information security.

Self-sufficiency (SS)

“Self-supply” is more correct than “self-sufficiency”. The “taux d’auto-approvisionnement” of a country in a product may be more than 100%. Hence, it is more logical to translate the term as “self-supply ratio” rather than “self-sufficiency ratio” since “sufficiency” cannot be more than 100%.

Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)

Style of software design where services are provided to the other components by application components, through a communication protocol over a network.

Smart Energy Districts (SED)

Those districts (or networks) where thermal and electric grid are coupled, according to the 4th and 5th generation DHC models, and renewable energy sources are soundly integrated with the grids through the use of smart hardware and software solutions.

Smart Hybrid Grids (SHG)

Hybrid smart grid that produces electricity from various sources Photovoltaic (PV), hydro and thermal power with a delivery system that satisfies energy optimization of the energy costs in real-time (ECRT).

Social life cycle assessment (S-LCA)

A powerful technique to assess and report about these impacts and benefits of product life cycle from the extraction of the natural resources to the final disposal.

Solar thermal (ST)

Energy produced using direct heat from the sun, concentrating it to produce heat at useful temperatures; solar thermal devices do everything from heating swimming pools to creating steam for electricity generation.

Sorption Storage (SOR)​

Sorption heat storage belongs to the class of thermochemical storage and relies on a physical reaction which involves the application or deletion of heat energy to occur. Different types of sorbents are used, zeolites (aluminosilicates) being the most common and most researched sorbents for sorption heat storage.

Sorption thermal energy storage (STES)

Sorption thermal energy storage is a promising technology for effectively utilizing renewable energy, industrial waste heat and off-peak electricity owing to its remarkable advantages of a high energy storage density and achievable long-term energy preservation with negligible heat loss.

State of Charge (SoC)

Available capacity remaining in a battery, expressed as a percentage of the rated capacity.

Steam Buffer (SB)

A steam buffer shall, as the name indicates, accomplish a levelling between power input in the shape of the steam arriving from the steam generator and the power output to the steam engine, which will make it possible to use intermittent and stochastic energy sources like solar energy in stationary plants, and above all make it possible to obtain considerably higher peak power outputs for short periods than the power that corresponds to the steam generator capacity.

Steam turbine CHP systems

Steam turbines normally generate electricity as a byproduct of heat (steam) generation. A steam turbine uses a separate heat source and does not directly convert fuel to electric energy. The energy is transferred from the boiler to the turbine through high pressure steam that in turn powers the turbine and generator. This separation of functions enables steam turbines to operate with an enormous variety of fuels, varying from clean natural gas to solid waste, including all types of coal, wood, wood waste, and agricultural byproducts.

Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA)

A generic name for a computerized system that is capable of gathering and processing data and applying operational controls over long distances. Typical uses include power transmission and distribution and pipeline systems. SCADA was designed for the unique communication challenges (e.g., delays, data integrity) posed by the various media that must be used, such as phone lines, microwave, and satellite. Usually shared rather than dedicated.


Technology Readiness Levels (TRL)

Set of management metrics used to assess the maturity of a particular technology and to allow consistent comparison of the maturity of different types of technology in a given system, application and operational environment.

The Least Privilege Principle

Strong guidance for maintaining confidentiality, ensuring only the bare minimum access permission required to complete a task is guaranteed for the user;
moreover, if users are granted access permits, exploitation opportunities should be minimized.

Thermal Energy Storage (TES)

Technology that stocks thermal energy by heating or cooling a storage medium so that the stored energy can be used at a later time for heating and cooling applications and power generation.

Thermal Grid

Centralized thermal generation systems, a system of networks that transport thermal fluids, enable the demand for heating and domestic hot water in homes and other buildings to be met.

Thermochemical Storage

Storage system using any process which transforms an initial set of chemical reagents into a different product set of chemicals involving the application or deletion of heat energy.

Thermochemical Storage Systems TCMS)

Thermochemical energy storage is a new technology which provides the advantage of high storage densities and minor thermal losses. This makes the technology attractive for low-temperature long-term storage as well as for high-temperature storage.

Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

Type of testing that is performed on samples to determine changes in weight in relation to change in temperature.


Unit of Measure (UoM)

Value of a quantity chosen by convention as a reference for measuring quantities of the same kind.

Use case (UC)

Description of how users will perform tasks on a computer system.


Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRFB)

Is a type of rechargeable flow battery. It employs vanadium ions as charge carriers. The battery uses vanadium’s ability to exist in a solution in four different oxidation states to make a battery with a single electroactive element instead of two. For several reasons, including their relative bulkiness, vanadium batteries are typically used for grid energy storage, i.e., attached to power plants/electrical grids.

Variable energy resources (VREs)

Refers to any generation resource whose output is not perfectly controllable by a transmission system operator, and whose output is dependent on a fuel resource that cannot be directly stored or stockpiled and whose availability is difficult to predict. Wind and solar power generation are the primary VERs, since the sun does not shine all the time (even during the day, clouds and dust can interfere with solar power generation in surprising ways) and the wind does not blow all the time. In some cases, hydro electricity without storage (so-called “run of river” hydro) could be considered a VER since its output is dependent on streamflows at any given moment.